Sleep Disorder Classifications

1. DYSSOMNIAS A broad category of sleep disorders characterized by either hypersomnolence or insomnia. The three major subcategories include intrinsic (i.e., arising from within the body) (SLEEP DISORDERS, INTRINSIC), extrinsic (secondary to environmental conditions or various pathologic conditions), and disturbances of circadian rhythm. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187) A. Intrinsic Sleep Disorders 1. Psychophysiologic Insomnia 2. Sleep State Misperception 3. Idiopathic Insomnia 4. Narcolepsy 5. Recurrent Hypersomnia 6. Idiopathic Hypersomnia 7. Post-traumatic Hypersomnia 8. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome 9. Central Sleep Apnea Syndrome 10. Central Alveolar Hypoventilation Syndrome 11. Periodic Limb Movement Disorder 12. Restless Legs Syndrome 13. Intrinsic Sleep Disorder NOS (Not Otherwise Specified) B. Extrinsic Sleep Disorders 1. Inadequate Sleep Hygiene 2. Environmental Sleep Disorder 3. Altitude Insomnia 4. Adjustment Sleep Disorder . 5. Insufficient Sleep Syndrome 6. Limit-setting Sleep Disorder 7. Sleep-onset Association Disorder 8. Food Allergy Insomnia 9. Nocturnal Eating (Drinking) Syndrome 10. Hypnotic-Dependent Sleep Disorder 11. Stimulant-Dependent Sleep Disorder 12. Alcohol-Dependent Sleep Disorder 13. Toxin-Induced Sleep Disorder 14. Extrinsic Sleep Disorder NOS (Not Otherwise Specified) C. Circadian-Rhythm Sleep Disorders 1. Time Zone Change (Jet Lag) Syndrome 2. Shift Work Sleep Disorder 3. Irregular Sleep-Wake Pattern 4. Delayed Sleep-Phase Syndrome 5. Advanced Sleep-phase Syndrome 6. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder 7. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder NOS (Not Otherwise Specified) 2. PARASOMNIAS Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191) A. Arousal Disorders 1. Confusional Arousals 2. Sleepwalking 3. Sleep Terrors B. Sleep-Wake Transition Disorders 1. Rhythmic movement Disorder 2. Sleep Starts 3. Sleep Talking 4. Nocturnal Leg Cramps C. Parasomnias Usually Associated with REM Sleep 1. Nightmares 2. Sleep Paralysis 3. Impaired Sleep-Related Penile Erections 4. Sleep-Related Painful Erections 5. REM Sleep-Related Sinus Arrest 6. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder D. Other Parasomnias 1. Sleep Bruxism 2. Sleep Enuresis 3. Sleep-Related Abnormal Swallowing Syndrome 4. Nocturnal Paroxysmal Dystonia 5. Sudden Unexplained Nocturnal Death Syndrome 6. Primary Snoring 7. Infant Sleep Apnea 8. Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome 9. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome 10. Benign Neonatal Sleep Myoclonus 11. Other Parasomnia NOS  (Not Otherwise Specified) 3. SLEEP DISORDERS ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL, NEUROLOGIC, OR OTHER MEDICAL DISORDERS A. Associated with Mental Disorders 1. Psychoses 2. Mood Disorders 3. Anxiety Disorders 4. Panic Disorders 5. Alcoholism B. Associated with Neurologic Disorders 1. Cerebral Degenerative Disorders 2. Dementia 3. Parkinsonism 4. Fatal Familial Insomnia 5. Sleep-Related Epilepsy 6. Electrical Status Epilepticus of Sleep 7. Sleep-Related Headaches C. Associated with Other Medical Disorders 1. Sleeping Sickness 2. Nocturnal Cardiac Ischemia 3. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 4. Sleep-Related Asthma 5. Sleep-Related Gastroesophageal Reflux 6. Peptic Ulcer Disease 7. Fibromyalgia 4. PROPOSED SLEEP DISORDERS 1. Short Sleeper 2. Long Sleeper 3. Subwakefulness Syndrome 4. Fragmentary Myoclonus 5. Sleep Hyperhidrosis 6. Menstrual-Associated Sleep Disorder 7. Pregnancy-Associated Sleep Disorder 8. Terrifying Hypnagogic Hallucinations 9. Sleep-Related Neurogenic Tachypnea 10. Sleep-Related Laryngospasm 11. Sleep Choking Syndrome]]>